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AAT ICAS 3105 ✧ vocabulary for English

document note: this document is part of the Integrated Chronological Applications System (ICAS). Alliance for the Advancement of Technology (AAT) provides ICAS standards documents subject to terms of use described in document AAT ICAS 9010. please refer to other key AAT ICAS standards documents accessible via the AAT ICAS web site at http://www.aatideas.org/icas for important information about ICAS.

AAT ICAS vocabulary for English

this document describes a controlled vocabulary set for AAT ICAS standards documents and for uses of ICAS. please reference other particular AAT ICAS documents for further specification of terms. the application of particular terms may not be limited in general use to a particular scale or system, and may be subject to other definitions in other organizations or communities.

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

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A

accessibility—capability for use even when subject to limiting conditions.
accuracy—typically, a quality of an instrument or system to correctly represent a designated scalar value in terms of a designated level of scalar precision. term represents a qualitative concept, and should not be used as a label for a quantitative concept. [see also NIST TN 1297.]
alphabetical order—a designation of a standard sequential relationship of primary letters in a reference alphabet (for example 26 letters of roman alphabet: a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, i, j, k, l, m, n, o, p, q, r, s, t, u, v, w, x, y, z).
alphanumeric representation—an attribute of a term or format designating whether a scale value is represented alphabetically or numerically. Numeric representation also concerns the use of arabic or roman numerals, and so forth.
annum—in the New Calendar system, a uniform duration of one New Calendar year.
applicability—a philosophy of the relative value of a method or application.
application—a system or tool for accomplishing a particular applicable objective.

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B

best practice—a normative designation of a particular practical method that is highlighted for applicable use.
biannum—a 6-month or half-month period.
biannual—occurring on a twice-yearly cycle.
biennium—in the New Calendar system, a uniform yeargroup consisting of 2 New Calendar years.
biennial—occurring on a 2-year cycle.
billion—a term that may have different customary meanings in different regions. for example the term 'billion' means a 'thousand million' (109) in American usage, yet means 'million million' (1012) in British usage. consequently, usage of the terms 'million', 'billion', and 'trillion' is discouraged in favor of the preferred usage alternatives described in AAT ICAS 2024.
block—a uniform daygroup of the Uniform Calendar consisting of 7-day cycles plus 2 monthspace days in a 30-day uniform month.

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C

calendar—a systematic organization of years, months, or days.
calendar order—a designation of a standard sequential relationship of a designated subset of 24 letters representing a biennial set of uniform months (for example 24 letters of roman alphabet: A,B,C, D, E, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z). please note that calendar order is derived from alphabetical order, however that letters 'I' and 'O' are not represented in calendar order.
calendar year—a duration designating a revolution of Earth around Sun in the terms of a designated calendar day scale. a year in the New Calendar year is derived from the Gregorian calendar year.
canonical—an expression, form, or representation of a standard that is structured in terms of fundamental principles; and is thus regarded as if independent of particular expressions, forms, or representations.
case sensitivity—an attribute of a term or format designating the significance of case information for a particular application or method: 'cs' denotes case-sensitive ('a' and 'A' are parsed as different); 'ci' denotes case-insensitivity ('a' and 'A' are parsed as identical); 'cn' denotes not subject to case (for example, number characters or special characters); 'ca' denotes element or attribute indicates case information; 'ct' denotes reference to type definition for information about case.
century—in the New Calendar system, a uniform yeargroup consisting of 100 New Calendar years.
CFE—common form English.
chron—an IDC main unit with a duration of 1 day.
clock—an application or method for the reference of timekeeping.
clock unit prefixes—in IDC, the specialized use of derived terms 'tik' and 'tok'.
coherence—generally, a principle or quality of a measure that may concern the unitary, decimal, mathematical, referential, or terminological nature of a unit system. see also terms 'metric' and 'uniform'.
conformance—an indication of the quality of a practice, method, or application in adhering to a particular system of standards.
context sensitive—an attribute of a term for which the meaning is context sensitive to the system or scale referenced and may possess meanings specific to a particular use. examples of context sensitive terms include 'month', 'yearend', 'monthend'.
continental—a format order designating the expression of date units from smallest to largest; for example, 'dd Month YYYY'.
coordinated day—[under consideration as an ICAS term for comparison with other day specifications such as 'solar day'.]
customary—a different format order that is derived from a conventional use or practice. the formatOrder element 'Customary' denotes any conventional arrangement of time and/or date formats that is not Interform nor Continental; for example, 'Month-DD-YYYY'

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D

date—generally, a particular day or year expressed in terms of a day, month, and/or year.
date line—a line circa 180 degrees longitude by which local times increment 1 day traversing eastward, and decrement 1 day traversing westward.
datetime—generally, an expression of both date and time.
day—typically, a unit or duration of time corresponding to 1 day UT. other measures of day are measured with reference to an Earth rotational period. a mean solar day is reckoned by the rotation of Earth with reference to the Sun. a mean sidereal day is reckoned by the rotation of Earth with reference to another star on the celestial sphere. usage of term should reflect any scale sensitivity.
daytable—a specification of day numbering for a particular designated system or scale. day systems concern the reference of when days begin and end, and how particular days may be represented in a specified tableset. the NDN and JD tablesets are comprised of a daytable.
decade—in the New Calendar system, a uniform yeargroup consisting of 10 New Calendar years.
decimal coherence—a principle or quality by which a system of units is mathematically related by no factors other than 10 raised to the power of a positive or negative integer. multiples and submultiples of metric units are decimally coherent because they are derived from powers of the number 10.
decipair—a system of formatting time values in terms of an ordinal group of two decimal places of the main unit. the first decipair corresponds to the first pair of decimal places (0.XXx), the second pair to (0.xxXXx), and so on. standard expressions of decipairs may however be represented in terms of particular clock units such as the tiros or the tok.
decitriad—a system of formatting time values that consists of an order specifier character or character group that is systematically related to an ordinal group of three decimal places of the main unit, for example, t000 tt000 ttt000. the first decitriad t000 designates the first group of three decimal places of the main unit (0.XXX), the second decitriad tt000 designates the second group of three decimal places (0.xxxXXX), the third decitriad ttt000 designates the third group of three decimal places (0.xxxxxxXXX), and so on.
design
dial—a specific implementation of a particular clock that is defined in terms of a particular system of subunits.

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E

End—the second day in the monthend monthspace of the uniform 7-day block daygroup of the Uniform Calendar.
English—a natural language, a common form of which may be further characterized by regional or local variation.
Eve—the first day in the monthend monthspace of the uniform 7-day block daygroup of the Uniform Calendar. also , generally, a day before a particular designated day.
excalary—as if the intercalary days and the main part of the twelfth uniform month were considered as one uniform month for fiscal purposes of determining monthly rates or averages. [this term is not firmly established and remains under consideration. users are advised to ensure that any particular methods for referencing uniform months in relation to intercalary days are clearly represented. source of this term is program report.]
expression—generally a means of representation

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F

fixed day—a semi-normative expression for a fixed measure corresponding to an exact unit multiple of the SI second (86 400 s), or alternatively to an exact multiple of the ICAS derived unit submultiple tikochron [where a main unit of 1 chron is equal to 100 000 tikochron (1 Xn = 100 000 tiXn, and 1 tiXn = 0.864 s)] a fixed measure of a main unit of 1 chron is closely approximated by a coordinated measure of 1 chron (1 day UTC). normative expression for a fixed unit of 1 day is a main unit of 1 chron (Xn).
format—generally, a form or a method of information processing or design that is typically addressed as a conventional or a technical consideration.

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G

G—Gregorian calendar
gigaeonth—ordinal term for 'giga'; a common form alternative for customary terms in 'millionth', 'billionth', 'trillionth', and so forth, series.
gigalennium—in the New Calendar system, a uniform yeargroup consisting of 1 000 000 000 New Calendar years.

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H

hour—typically, a unit of time that consists of 60 traditional SMH clock minutes. term 'hour' must be reserved for references to traditional scales of timekeeping. term may also be subject to non-normative usage. usage of term should reflect scale sensitivity.
hubble—a coordinated unit of time that is 1/10th of a day UTC.
hundredgigalennium—in the New Calendar system, a uniform yeargroup consisting of 100 000 000 000 New Calendar years.
hundredmegalennium—in the New Calendar system, a uniform yeargroup consisting of 100 000 000 New Calendar years (equivalent to 365 242 500 main units).
hundredmillennium—in the New Calendar system, a uniform yeargroup consisting of 100 000 New Calendar years.

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I

ICAS—Integrated Chronological Applications System
ICAS English—an ICAS language standard that reflects the use of common, global, or international varieties of English as a natural language.
ICAS-ready—a state or quality of some level of readiness for an ICAS state of the art.
IDC—Inter-Dial Clock system
IFP—inch-foot-pound system
instrument—with reference to ICAS; a printed, mechanical, or electronic technology in which the use of a particular calendar or clock scale is represented.
intercalary—generally, those days added to a calendar for the purpose of coordinating one calendrical cycle with another, for example, leap days.
interchange—generally, a methodology of preparing information for practicable use; especially if the format of the data is to be expanded, truncated, re-arranged, re-localized, re-sourced, or re-scaled. for example, formatting dates as YYYY-MM-DD.
Interform—a format order designating the expression of date and/or time units from largest to smallest; for example, 'yyyyymdd'.

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J

J—Julian calendar
JD—Julian dating

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K

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L

language—see natural language
leap—a leap day is a day added to a calendar year for the purpose of conformance with the tropical year. calendar years for which a leap day is designated are also called leap years. years not observing a leap day are referenced as common years or non-leap years. please reference SI brochure, The International System of Units (SI), for information about leap seconds.
legibility—a relative measure of reading ease that is concerned primarily with the influence of format structure or visual clarity on the comprehension of text.
lexical—a particular expression, form, or representation of a term that is characterized for systematic use.
lexspace—a designation of a particular configuration of element set usage, especially with regard to usage concerning 'symbol form', 'short form', 'long form', 'meta form', 'say form', 'name form', 'alt form', 'tag form', and so forth.
local—the quality or characteristic of a system, method, or application that is intended for localized use for a particular use, locale, organization, or community.
localization—an implementation of a system, method, or application designated for local use.
localized—an indication of the designation of a system, method, or application for local use. also an indication of the quality or character by which a system, method, or application can be accepted as local.

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M

main unit—a generic expression for an ICAS unit that is derived from the unit that is most common to traditional time and date systems, that of 1 day.
major unit—a primary clock unit specifying a primary subdivision of the main unit for a particular dial unit.
mathematical coherence—a principle or quality by which a particular system of units accommodates a coherent system of numerical or algebraic representation.
megaeonth—ordinal term for 'mega'; a common form alternative for customary terms in 'millionth', 'billionth', 'trillionth', and so forth, series.
megalennium—in the New Calendar system, a uniform yeargroup consisting of 1 000 000 New Calendar years.
method—a particular procedure for accomplishing a particular applicable objective.
metric—concerning the use of measures defined in terms of principles of coherence, constancy, reproducibility, and uniformity; for example, scales based on natural or practical factors, scales based on decimals or powers of ten or other uniform numbers rather than fractions or other customary factors, terms based on coherent schemes, and so forth. [usage of term should be considered generic or non-normative. for normative references one should reference particular system, for example, SI or ICAS.]
metric prefixes—in ICAS, the use of prefixes derived from SI and IDC. with reference to IDC prefix subsets, a subset of prefixes defined in SI.
metrication—a process of learning about or practicing the use of metric measures.
metrological coherence—the level of extent to which a particular set of metric units accommodates principles of unitary, decimal, mathematical, referential, and terminological coherence.
millichron—a unit of time that is 1/1000th of an IDC main unit.
million—a conventional term for a quantity of 106. terms in the set (for example, 'billion') may have different customary meanings in different regions. consequently, usage of the terms 'million', 'billion', and 'trillion' is discouraged in favor of the preferred usage alternatives described in AAT ICAS 2024.
minor unit—a second-level clock unit specifying a subdivision of the major clock unit for a particular dial unit.
minute—typically, a unit of time that consists of 60 traditional SMH clock seconds. a navigational minute is also a unit of navigation. term 'minute' must be reserved for references to traditional scales of clock or navigation. term may also be subject to non-normative usage. Usage of term should reflect scale sensitivity.
month—generally, a group of days longer than a daygroup. usage of term should reflect any scale sensitivity.
monthend—in ICAS 2 days of monthspace on the 29th and 30th days of a uniform month specified for the uniform 7-day block daygroup of the Uniform Calendar.
monthspace—a specification of 2 days designated to space the arrangement of uniform 7-day block daygroups in a 30-day uniform month in the Uniform Calendar.
monthtable—a specification of a system of months, daygroups, and intercalary days for a particular designated system or scale. Month systems concern the reference of when months begin and end, how daygroup systems relate to months, how monthspace and intercalary days are organized, how month systems relate to years in a specified tableset, and how particular month-system elements may be represented.

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N

natural language—a system of language use that is developed from natural use by one or more groups of people over a period of time, and that may be differentiated from other natural languages in terms of syntax, orthography, phonology, semantics, and so forth. systems of natural language may be contrasted with other systems of language use such as systems of language standards or systems of computer language.
NC—New Calendar
NDN—New Calendar Day Notation
normative—a particular expression, form, or representation of a standard that is conventional for a designated group.

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O

offset—the specification of a time differential from universal time (UT).
overview—generally, a summary or description.

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P

practicable—generally concerning feasibility, practicality, and applicability.
precision—typically, a designated level of scalar subdivision to which the use of a designated instrument is represented. term represents a qualitative concept, and should not be used as a label for a quantitative concept. [see also NIST TN 1297.]
prefix—an affix positioned at the beginning of a word. in IDC, prefixes are derived from the following schemes each possessing certain usage conventions: metric prefixes (SI prefixes), the derived clock unit prefixes (tik and tok), and the coordinating expressions for 'ten' and 'hundred').
pre-ICAS—in general, a calendar or clock measure that is based on custom or tradition rather than uniformity. examples of pre-ICAS measures are seconds, minutes, hours, weeks, weekdays, am, pm, and so forth.
pre-metric—in general, a measure that is based on custom or tradition. examples of pre-metric measures are acres, barrels, bushels, feet, inches, ounces, pounds, and yards. [adapted from Metrication matters 17 (AAT ICAS 2076) with permission.]
pre-scale—a scale designated to specify years before a principal era in terms of coherent positive numbers.
pre-SI—in general, an old metric (or pre-metric) measure, including metric measures that have since been replaced by newer specifications of SI. examples of pre-SI units are abampere, dyne, gauss, gilbert, maxwell, micron, oersted, and statampere. [adapted from Metrication matters 17 (AAT ICAS 2076) with permission.]
pre-teralennial—relating to the 'cosmological' teralennium, or the quantifiable subset of the teralennium of main units immediately preceding the current NC teralennium.
principal scale—a predominant scale designated to specify years. ICAS designates the NC scale era as principal. the AD scale is conventionally designated as principal for the Gregorian calendar.

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Q

quality—an indication or measure with reference to conformance with a particular system of standards.

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R

readability—a relative measure of reading ease that is concerned primarily with the influence of vocabulary and sentence structure on the comprehension of text.
reference unit—a provisional and RESTRICTED class of metric units specified by AAT ICAS for the purpose of accommodating a common set of metric units. a metrologically coherent set of metric units is specified in terms of principles consisting of unitary coherence, decimal coherence, mathematical coherence, and terminological coherence.
referential coherence—a principle or quality by which a particular unit is designated as a metric unit to accommodate practical use in terms of principles of constancy, reproducibility, and uniformity. also concerns the determination of a unit in terms of fixed or coordinated measure.
requirement—generally, a specification of conformance.

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S

scale—a system of measure.
scale-insensitive—an attribute of a term for which the meaning or use does not depend on the use of a particular ICAS or traditional scale. examples of scale-insensitive terms include 'noon', 'midnight', 'morning', 'afternoon', 'evening', and so forth.
scale-sensitive—an attribute of a term for which the meaning or use is restricted to the use of a particular ICAS or traditional calendar or clock scale. examples of scale-sensitive terms include 'New Calendar', 'Uniform Calendar', 'uniform yeargroup', 'uniform month', 'uniform daygroup', 'Gregorian calendar', 'week', 'am/pm', and so forth.
second—typically, a unit of time that is 1/60th of the traditional SMH clock minute. the SI second is also a fixed-unit measure. a navigational second is also 1/60th of a navigational minute. in uses of ICAS, the unit term 'second' must be reserved for references to the SI fixed-second or to traditional scales of clock or navigation. term may also be subject to non-normative usage. Usage of term should reflect scale sensitivity.
sequence sensitivity—an attribute of a term with regard to a specific term set. the use of uniform months as data elements may be considered to be subject to a strict sequential scheme, while the use of uniform yeargroups such as centuries identifying a historical epoch may not be subject to a strict sequential scheme.
semi-coherence—a principle or quality by which a particular system of units is related by principles of accommodating uniformity and limiting exception to uniformity, especially in comparison with other principles of coherence.
SI—the International System of Units; specifying meter, kilogram, second, and so forth; also known as the metric system.
SMH—a traditional scale of clock or timekeeping that expresses time in terms of seconds, minutes, and hours (pronounced 'smaytch'; for example, 'a SMH scale'). by convention there are 60 seconds in a minute, 60 minutes in an hour, and 24 hours in a day.
specification—generally, a designation or reference to a standard. usage of term 'specification' in ICAS documentation should however be reserved for the reference or designation of AAT ICAS standards.
stack—a uniform daygroup of the Uniform Calendar consisting of 6-day cycles in a 30-day uniform month.
standard—generally, a system of specifications.
style—generally, a characteristic of design that is typically addressed as an artistic or aesthetic consideration. also, a reference to conventions of usage.
subminor—a third level of clock unit specifying the subdivision of minor clock units.
superset—an aaticas namespace element consisting of those tableset element members that can be represented in terms of a discrete relationship to either the 'tablesetUCN' or to the 'tablesetNDN' systems.

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T

tableset—a coherent set of one or more calendar systems such as monthtable, yeartable, or daytable.
ten-one—an ICAS-derived expression for continuous operation (as an alternative to the SMH-derived expression '24-7').
tengigalennium—in the New Calendar system, a uniform yeargroup consisting of 10 000 000 000 New Calendar years.
tenmegalennium—in the New Calendar system, a uniform yeargroup consisting of 10 000 000 New Calendar years.
tenmillennium—in the New Calendar system, a uniform yeargroup consisting of 10 000 New Calendar years.
teraeonth—ordinal term for 'tera'; a common form alternative for customary terms in 'millionth', 'billionth', 'trillionth', and so forth, series.
teralennium—in the New Calendar system, a uniform yeargroup consisting of 1 000 000 000 000 New Calendar years.
terminological coherence—a principle or quality by which a particular system of units is organized into distinct schemes for the practical expression of names and symbols for purposes of accommodating clear and concise communication of qualitative and quantitative information about particular units.
TIC—'time interval counter' used in computer science as a mechanism for quantifying units of time in a computer operating system environment. the quantification of a 'tic' unit can vary subject to a particular operating system or program implementation. distinction between terms 'tik' and 'tic' should be maintained to ensure coherence and to avoid confusion.
tik—a short form for 'tikochron', a unit of measure that is 1/100 000th of an IDC main unit.
timesetting—an application or method of setting time or date values for a method or application.
timespace—a designation of a particular scalar system or configuration for the representation of dates and times.
time zone—a particular implementation of local time with regard to an area or locale.
tiros—a unit of measure that is 1/100th of an IDC main unit.
tok—a short form for 'tokochron', a unit of measure that is 1/10 000th of an IDC main unit.
track—a uniform daygroup of the Uniform Calendar consisting of 5-day cycles in a 30-day uniform month.
traditional—a practice, method, or application that is derived from conventional use or practice.
twen—a coordinated unit of measure consisting of 20 millichrons.
trillion—a conventional term for a quantity of 1012. terms in the set (for example, 'billion') may have different customary meanings in different regions. consequently, usage of the terms 'million', 'billion', and 'trillion' is discouraged in favor of the preferred usage alternatives described in AAT ICAS 2024.

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U

uniform—generally, a principle or quality of coherence. also, a designation of the use of a distinct scale or system of measure for purposes of standardization. [usage of term should be considered generic or non-normative. for normative references one should reference particular system, for example, SI, ICAS, or UC.]
uniform daygroup—a Uniform Calendar daygroup that is coherent in arrangement to a uniform month.
uniform month—a Uniform Calendar month consisting of 30 days, or in the case of the 12th uniform month 30 days followed by yearend days.
uniform yeargroup—Uniform yeargroups are yeargroups such as a decade, century, or millennium that in a primary sense are fixed coherent to yeargroup sequences in relation to year NC 00000 of the New Calendar.
unit—in general, a reference measure. standardized units are defined with reference to a particular system or framework of units. practical references of standard units may involve coordination among one or more frameworks (natural frequency, civil calendaring and timekeeping, and so forth).
unitary coherence—a principle or quality by which the particular units in a system or set are related to particular reference units by the rules of multiplication and division with no numerical factor other than the number 1 ever occurring in the expressions for the particular units in terms of the particular reference units.
unitform—generally, the manner in which a format is presented. also a parameter of expansion/contraction.
usability—a particular type of applicability that is concerned with issues of use or application.
usage—a system of normative guidelines for the specification, expression, or representation of information or systems of information.
user-centered design—a systematic approach to developing an application, method, or system with special consideration to matters of task and use.
UC—Uniform Calendar
UCA—designates use of the millennial-place digits of the uniform tenmillennium yeargroup NC 10000-19999 for coordination of Uniform Calendar years subject to the Gregorian calendar: Uniform Calendar year UCA 2003 is equivalent to Gregorian calendar year AD 2003.
UCN—designates use of the Uniform Calendar for any New Calendar-era date: UCN 12003 (AD 2003).
UT—Universal Time by which other local times are determined by means of an offset from UT (formerly known as Greenwich Mean Time).
UTC—coordinated universal time, a method of civil timekeeping.

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V

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W

week—a traditional Gregorian calendar daygroup of 7 days. term 'week' must be reserved for references of traditional calendar daygroups. term may also be subject to non-normative usage. usage of term should reflect scale sensitivity.

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X

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Y

year—typically, a term for a duration of time corresponding to the revolution of Earth around Sun. particular measures of year include tropical year, sidereal year, and calendar year. usage of term should reflect any scale sensitivity.
yearend—in ICAS a group of days sequenced after the principal 30-days of the twelfth uniform month of a year, including a leap day on the last day of a leap year.
yeargroup—a group of years that is typically based on a power of 10 or some other practical factor.
yeartable—a specification of a system of years for a particular designated system or scale. year systems concern the reference of when years begin and end, how intercalary days are organized, how year systems relate to months in a specified tableset, and how particular year elements may be represented.

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Z

Z—indicates use of 'zero time' offset or UT.

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aatideas.org document updated:

system identifiersdatetime
longshortscalevalue
Uniform CalendarUCUCN 12011 P09 Violet
Inter-Dial ClockIDCzone(UT)t408 tt900
'ICAS in use' can accommodate calendar and clock formatting 'for all people, for all time'.
day of yearD-o-YAD common year day039
Gregorian calendarGG2011 February 08 Tuesday
seconds, minutes, hoursSMHUT09:48:49
style legend

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